What is Authoritarian Parenting? (Tough Love) - Parenting For Brain Skip to Content

What is Authoritarian Parenting? (Tough Love)

When parents practice tough love parenting, they adopt a parenting style that psychologists call authoritarian parenting. Find out if this parenting style is right for your child.

What Is Authoritarian Parenting

In the 1960s, Diana Baumrind, a developmental psychologist at the University of California at Berkeley, defined three types of parenting styles​1​.

About two decades later, Maccoby and Martin expanded this 3-parenting-styles model using a two-dimensional framework​2​.

According to this Baumrind / Maccoby & Martin framework, authoritarian parenting is a parenting style that is characterized by high demand but low responsiveness. Authoritarian parents require their children to meet high standards, yet they are cold and aloof to the child’s emotional needs.

Authoritarian parent yells at child who covers his ears - two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they are non-responsive to their child's needs and they require their kids to meet high standards.

The Characteristics Of Authoritarian Parenting Style

1. Authoritarian Parents are Demanding.

Authoritarian parents have many rules and very high standards. Many of these rules are in place to exert control over child behavior or activities, and children are expected to follow these rules from a young age.

Some rules are arbitrary, and some are never even explained – the children are just supposed to know and follow them.

When a child fails to comply, whether to an explicit rule or an implicit one, authoritarian parents believe that the child has done that out of either defiance or incompetence. Neither is acceptable in an authoritarian parent’s eyes.

2. Authoritarian Parents are Cold and Non-Nurturing.

Authoritarian parents seldom show warmth towards their children. In fact, they are often quite cold, unkind and harsh.

When they are upset with their children, authoritarian parents are also more likely to yell or berate.

They use the term “tough love” to justify their unresponsiveness and mean attitudes towards their kids.

Some of these parents also withhold love when the kids are not meeting their expectations.

3. Authoritarian parents are controlling.

Authoritarian parents believe that they are the authority figures and that their kids should show obedience to authority blindly without question.

Some authoritarian parents exert control over every aspect of their children’s lives, from the way the kids talk, to how they act at home or in public, what they wear, and what activities they participate in. They require children to be submissive in the parent-child relationship.

Authoritarian parents impose not only behavioral control but also psychological control over their children.

They don’t believe that children have the right or ability to make their own decisions. Children’s autonomous thinking is strongly discouraged. Kids are also discouraged from exploring or acting independently.

4. Authoritarian Parents Only Allow One-Way Communication.

Authoritarian parents rarely involve children in any decision making. They use reason such as “because I said so” when they demand children to simply do as they’re told.

They do not seek or allow feedback from their children.

Any attempt to reason with parents is seen as back-talking or a challenge to the parents’ authority.

Authoritarian parents expect children to be seen and not heard.

5. Authoritarian Parents Tend to Use Harsh Punishment.

Authoritarian parents often use fear to control their kids. When children do not meet expectations of good behavior, the punishments or consequences can be harsh and stiff.

These parents are more likely to employ punitive measures to force kids into following rules. For example, punitive punishment might be an excessive time-out, berating, shaming, or physical punishment (corporal punishment).

Authoritarian parents focus on punishment over teaching or modeling desirable behavior.

6. Authoritarian Parents Are Less Agreeable

Agreeableness is a personality trait in the Big Five personality trait model.

Agreeable individuals are kind, sympathetic, cooperative, warm and considerate.

Studies have found that authoritarian parents tend to be less agreeable​3,4​. They are more antagonistic and unkind.

Child buries his face when authoritarian parent points at him - authoritarian parenting style

Effects of Authoritarian Parenting on a Child

Although individual differences can affect a child’s outcomes, studies have found that these effects of authoritarianism generally apply​5​:

  • Are highly compliant and obedient at home and around their parents.
  • Tend to be unhappy.
  • Are less independent than other children.
  • Lack self regulation – become hostile and aggressive under pressure.
  • Can display anger and aggressive behavior problems outside the home, when the parents are not around​6​.
  • Some children appear overly shy or fearful around people.
  • Have poor social skills.
  • Less likely to feel socially accepted by peers.
  • May perform poorly in school​7​.
  • Develop lower self-esteem​8​.
  • Are less resilient after failure.
  • Less psychological flexibility resulting in less coping strategies​9​.
  • Tend to show more obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms​10​.
  • Have a higher risk for drinking, smoking, substance abuse, or mental health problems such as anxiety or suicide attempts. They are also more likely to suffer from major depression​11–15​.

Related: Turning Tantrums Into Triumphs

Tough Love

Authoritarian parenting is prevalent in many countries, especially among the older generation. As the newer generation parents start to recognize the harm authoritarianism can do, those who still want to practice it try to portray it as an effective parenting method by calling it tough love, or old school parenting.

Tough love parenting is an example of authoritarian parenting.

Some authoritarian parents practice tough love parenting because they want to toughen up the child. They mistakenly believe that being harsh and mean to a child will make them strong.

Others use authoritarian parenting because they believe that being tough will instill discipline in the child, teaching the child how to obey authorities, and preventing them from making mistakes in the future and “ending up in jail”.

Some are also worried that if they are not being authoritarian, their children might “walk all over them”.

Authoritarian parents usually have more rigid views of the world​9​. They often think in either-or terms and there’s no middle ground. For example, they believe that either they have complete control over their kids or the kids will completely rule the house and dominate them.

(Note: Those parents who allow their kids to walk all over them are called permissive parents. Permissive parents are warm and nurturing, but they either have no boundaries or do not consistently enforce the boundaries that are in place.)

In contrast to what tough love parents believe, the opposite of high-responsiveness and low demanding (permissive parenting) is not low-responsiveness and high demanding (authoritarian parenting).

The problem with permissive parenting is not that the parents are warm and responsive, because research shows that responsive parents actually help children form secure attachment, which is beneficial. The actual problem with permissive parenting is not setting limits or not enforcing them consistently.

The opposite of permissive is non-permissive! 

Authoritative parenting is a non-permissive parenting style that is both nurturing and has high standards, and is a much better parenting approach to adopt.

Sometimes, it seems logical that practicing tough love parenting will prepare kids to face tough situations. But this has been proven to be not true in research.

A study was performed in Israel where 18-year-old men have to serve in mandatory military service. It was found that male adolescents who grew up in a non-nurturing environment coped and adapted worse in the tough military scenery than those who grew up in a nurturing household (Mayseless, et al., 2003).

~ Turning Tantrums Into Triumphs

Related: Difference Between Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting

Tiger parent carries her cub in mouth - symbolizing tough "tiger mom parenting"

Tiger Parenting

Tiger parenting is another example of authoritarian parenting.

Although most studies conducted in western societies indicate that authoritarian parenting is an inferior style of parenting, some studies have found contradictory results in school performance among other cultures such as African American, Hispanic, or Asian communities.

In fact, a 2011 Wall Street Journal article sparked a huge debate across America on this exact topic.

In the article, the author claimed that the Chinese Tiger Mom parenting was superior to “western” parenting style. (She later retracted that claim citing it was a Wall Street Journal marketing tactic and supported the notion that tiger parenting was not good, but at that point, people were already all over this new parenting style.)

A previous study in Chinese University of Hong Kong (1998) supported this claim. That study showed that in Hong Kong, kids with authoritarian parents had better academic achievement than those with authoritative parents​16​.

So, is it possible that the authoritarian, rather than authoritative, parenting style is indeed a better choice in some cultures?

Not really.

There are inconsistent results among different studies even in those cultures.

Some researchers have found that even in Asia, authoritarian parenting is linked to worse academic performance while authoritative parenting produces better academic outcomes​17​.

A Chinese study on second graders shows that children with authoritarian parents are not only worse in academic achievement, but are also rated as poorer in social competence by their teachers. These children often show more aggression and are less accepted by peers.

Mental well-being is another problem students of Asian authoritarian parents have to face.

A study has found that harsh discipline, a common authoritarian practice, is linked to more depressive symptoms among Chinese American adolescents​18​.

Girl buries her face in palms and sits alone in classroom - detrimental effect of authoritarian parenting style

In Hong Kong, a study shows that 54% of students aged 15 to 19 years old report suicidal ideation, compared to 36% of junior high and high school students in the United States​19,20​. This suicidal ideation is significantly associated with perceived authoritarian parenting, low parental warmth, high maternal over-control, negative child-rearing practices, and a negative family climate.

Between 1996 and 2004, more than half of suicides (11 of the 20) at Cornell University were committed by students of Asian descent. During that period, only 14% of enrolled students were Asian or Asian American​21​.

Data from the Centers for Decease Control and Prevention has also found that among women aged 15-24, Asian American females have the highest suicide rates across all racial or ethnic groups​22​ in the US.

No research is known to link the suicides at Cornell or the female suicidal rate directly to parenting style. But from the overwhelming amount of testimonials, you can imagine the damages this type of upbringing has done to many Asian and Asian American children.

Final Thoughts on Authoritarian Parenting

Child abuse by physical maltreatment is highly associated with authoritarian parenting style​23​. This type of child maltreatment has a high risk of transferring from one generation to the next​24​. Although it’s not easy, the cycle of harsh parenting can be broken if the parent is determined to do so.


  1. 1.
    Baumrind D. Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genet Psychol Monogr. 1967;75(1):43-88. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6032134
  2. 2.
    Maccoby E, Martin J. Socialization in the Context of the Family: Parent-Child Interaction. In: Handbook of Child Psychology. Socialization, Personality, and Social Development. ; 1983.
  3. 3.
    Huver RME, Otten R, de Vries H, Engels RCME. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents. Journal of Adolescence. Published online June 2010:395-402. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.07.012
  4. 4.
    Coplan RJ, Reichel M, Rowan K. Exploring the associations between maternal personality, child temperament, and parenting: A focus on emotions. Personality and Individual Differences. Published online January 2009:241-246. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.011
  5. 5.
    Darling N, Steinberg L. Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin. Published online 1993:487-496. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487
  6. 6.
    Rankin Williams L, Degnan KA, Perez-Edgar KE, et al. Impact of Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Style on Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Early Childhood through Adolescence. J Abnorm Child Psychol. Published online June 12, 2009:1063-1075. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9331-3
  7. 7.
    Dornbusch SM, Ritter PL, Leiderman PH, Roberts DF, Fraleigh MJ. The Relation of Parenting Style to Adolescent School Performance. Child Development. Published online October 1987:1244. doi:10.2307/1130618
  8. 8.
    Rudy D, Grusec JE. Authoritarian parenting in individualist and collectivist groups: Associations with maternal emotion and cognition and children’s self-esteem. Journal of Family Psychology. Published online 2006:68-78. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.20.1.68
  9. 9.
    Williams KE, Ciarrochi J, Heaven PCL. Inflexible Parents, Inflexible Kids: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study of Parenting Style and the Development of Psychological Flexibility in Adolescents. J Youth Adolescence. Published online February 7, 2012:1053-1066. doi:10.1007/s10964-012-9744-0
  10. 10.
    Timpano KR, Keough ME, Mahaffey B, Schmidt NB, Abramowitz J. Parenting and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms: Implications of Authoritarian Parenting. J Cogn Psychother. Published online August 2010:151-164. doi:10.1891/0889-8391.24.3.151
  11. 11.
    Baumrind D. The Influence of Parenting Style on Adolescent Competence and Substance Use. The Journal of Early Adolescence. Published online February 1991:56-95. doi:10.1177/0272431691111004
  12. 12.
    Donath C, Graessel E, Baier D, Bleich S, Hillemacher T. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents? BMC Pediatr. Published online April 26, 2014. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-113
  13. 13.
    Jackson C, Henriksen L, Foshee V. The Authoritative Parenting Index: predicting health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. Health Educ Behav. 1998;25(3):319-337. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9615242
  14. 14.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of the Surgeon General (US); Center for Mental Health Services (US); National Institute of Mental Health (US); 2001:Chapter 5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44245/
  15. 15.
    Newman K, Harrison L, Dashiff C, Davies S. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review. Rev Latino-Am Enfermagem. Published online February 2008:142-150. doi:10.1590/s0104-11692008000100022
  16. 16.
    Leung K, Lau S, Lam W-L. Parenting Styles and Academic Achievement: A Cross-Cultural Study. Wayne State University. Press; 1998:p157-72. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ563105
  17. 17.
    McBride-Chang C, Chang L. Adolescent-parent relations in Hong Kong: parenting styles, emotional autonomy, and school achievement. J Genet Psychol. 1998;159(4):421-436. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9845973
  18. 18.
    Kim S, Ge X. Parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese American families. J Fam Psychol. 2000;14(3):420-435. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11025933
  19. 19.
    Dubow EF, Kausch DF, Blum MC, Reed J, Bush E. Correlates of Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in a Community Sample of Junior High and High School Students. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. Published online June 1989:158-166. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp1802_7
  20. 20.
    Lai KW, McBride-Chang C. Suicidal ideation, parenting style, and family climate among Hong Kong adolescents. International Journal of Psychology. Published online April 2001:81-87. doi:10.1080/00207590042000065
  21. 21.
    Zhao Y, Qiu W. How Good are the Asians? Refuting Four Myths about Asian-American Academic Achievement. Phi Delta Kappan. Published online January 2009:338-344. doi:10.1177/003172170909000507
  22. 22.
    Leung FTL, Arpana G. I, Ebreo A, Yang LH, Kinoshita L, Fu M. Handbook of Asian American Psychology. 2nd ed. SAGE Publications, Inc; 2006. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/handbook-of-asian-american-psychology/book228036
  23. 23.
    Rodriguez CM. Parent–Child Aggression: Association With Child Abuse Potential and Parenting Styles. Violence Vict. Published online December 2010:728-741. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.25.6.728
  24. 24.
    Valentino K, Nuttall AK, Comas M, Borkowski JG, Akai CE. Intergenerational Continuity of Child Abuse Among Adolescent Mothers. Child Maltreat. Published online January 27, 2012:172-181. doi:10.1177/1077559511434945