The authoritative parenting style is a child-rearing approach in which parents combine emotional warmth and responsiveness with high standards and firm limits. Authoritative parents are warm, responsive, and nurturing. They support their children’s emotional growth while ensuring the children meet high standards. Research shows that children of authoritative parents tend to thrive in childhood, adolescence, and even adulthood. The American Academy of Pediatrics and psychologists worldwide regard this as the best approach to parenting.
A study in 2010 on over 10 thousand students found that the authoritative approach was the predominant parenting style in the United States.
Researchers have also found that the authoritative approach creates the best outcomes in children’s emotional, mental, and physical development. Parents benefit from higher self-efficacy and lower parental stress.
However, identifying a disciplinary approach that is both effective and emotionally attuned can be challenging. The key is to be kind and firm while using inductive discipline. Let’s explore the 10 steps to balancing discipline and love.
- What is authoritative parenting?
- Why is authoritative parenting the best?
- How to practice
- Cons of authoritative parenting
- What are the 4 parenting styles?
What is authoritative parenting?
The authoritative parenting style is high in demandingness and responsiveness. Authoritative parents have high standards while being responsive, nurturing, and supportive of their children’s needs.
Approximately 46% of families in the United States practice authoritative parenting, making it the most popular parenting style in the country.1
In the authoritative approach, parents hold high expectations for children’s behavior and maturity level. These parents set firm boundaries and enforce rules to provide structure and guidance.
Authoritative parents use reasoning, positive reinforcement, and natural consequences to discipline. They focus on teaching through explanations rather than giving harsh punishments. They are assertive but not punitive. They support children’s autonomy.
An authoritative mother or father allows children to disagree and negotiate. Children can voice their opinions and discuss their points of view. However, the parents still make the final decisions to maintain high standards. Hence, the authoritative parenting style is also called democratic parenting style.
Authoritative parents are responsive, warm, and positive despite being demanding. They are attuned to children’s feelings. Children’s emotional development is prioritized and valued by these parents.
The authoritative parenting style is widely considered the best approach to raising children because of its consistent positive impacts on child development.2
What are the effects of authoritative parenting?
Authoritative parents are sensitive to their child’s emotional needs. This responsive parenting approach fosters a secure attachment between parents and children. As a result, kids tend to have higher self-esteem, better emotional regulation, and more social skills. They are more resilient.3
These children also tend to have fewer mental health issues, such as depression, anxiety, and drug abuse.
Adolescents with authoritative parents often have higher academic achievement.4 These teenagers tend to be independent and self-reliant. They have better self-control and behavioral outcomes, including more prosocial behavior and less aggression.5
Studies have also found that young adults raised by authoritative parents have higher life satisfaction.6
Authoritative families set healthy boundaries that help children develop positive habits. Kids are more likely to embrace a healthy lifestyle, such as teeth brushing and lower junk food consumption. Research shows that children raised by authoritative parents tend to have a lower occurrence of obesity and tooth decay.7,8
Parents also reap the benefits of authoritative parenting. Authoritative parents develop confidence and self-efficacy because their children have fewer behavior problems. As a result, they experience less parenting stress.9
Authoritative families also tend to have more positive relationships between parents and children.10
Why is authoritative parenting the best?
Authoritative parenting is the best parenting style because it offers a balanced mix of emotional support and parental control. Authoritative parents impart good discipline while nurturing their children’s emotional development to lay the foundation for cognitive and psychological growth. Children develop self-esteem and resilience, which are crucial for lifelong success.
Is authoritative parenting good for every child?
Authoritative parenting doesn’t prescribe a fixed set of practices; instead, it outlines a general approach to parenting. The degrees of demandingness and responsiveness can be tailored to accommodate the unique temperaments of different children.
For example, you can be more warm or less warm and still warm. You can be more supportive or less supportive, but still supportive. The essence is balancing connection and boundaries, but how that balance manifests can flex to meet the needs of each child.
How to practice authoritative parenting
The goal of authoritative parenting is to raise children in a loving and disciplined manner.
Here are some examples of authoritative parenting techniques to meet that goal.
- Show affection often – Don’t be afraid to hug, say “I love you,” and share activities your child enjoys.
- Validate emotions – When your child expresses difficult emotions, validate and empathize. Help your child feel understood.
- Set clear rules and be flexible – Explain family rules and their reasons. Listen to input, then make the final decision.
- Use inductive discipline – Help your child think through everyday situations to learn right from wrong and moral reasoning skills.
- Use positive reinforcement – Recognize and compliment good behavior.
- Give consequences – If rules are broken, enforce reasonable, non-punitive consequences that focus on learning and have been pre-agreed.
- Be kind and firm – When correcting bad behavior, focus on positive discipline by teaching rather than punishment. You can be firm and mean business without being mean.
- Allow respectful discussion – Let your child share their perspective, even during discipline. Teach your child how to disagree respectfully.
- Guide decision-making – Help your child think through choices to build critical thinking skills.
- Adjust for maturity – Grant more autonomy as your child demonstrates responsibility and independence.
What are the cons of the authoritative parenting style?
One downside of the authoritative parenting style is that it requires significant time, effort, and emotional energy to balance being responsive and setting boundaries. Parents who have demanding jobs or strong-willed children may find this taxing. Effective consequences also take more work and creativity to create or implement.
The authoritative style may not align with community or familial norms in cultures emphasizing more authoritarian parenting strategies. Authoritative parenting can be mistaken as “soft parenting” by strict parents. This misalignment may cause misunderstanding or conflicts among parents and grandparents.
What are the 4 parenting styles?
The four parenting styles are authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful parenting, based on Diana Baumrind’s parenting styles theory. This classification is based on the parent’s levels of demandingness and responsiveness.11
Authoritative parenting is high in both demandingness and responsiveness. Authoritative parents are nurturing, responsive, and supportive, yet have firm rules for their children.
Authoritarian parenting is high in demandingness but low in responsiveness. Authoritarian parents have strict rules and are unresponsive to their children’s needs.
Permissive parenting is low in demandingness but high in responsiveness. Permissive parents have very few rules and don’t enforce them consistently, but they are warm and responsive to their children.
Neglectful parenting, also called uninvolved parenting, is low in demandingness and responsiveness. Neglectful parents don’t have rules and are emotionally distant from their children. They are uninvolved in their children’s lives.
What is the difference between authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles?
While both authoritative and authoritarian parents maintain high standards, their levels of responsiveness differ significantly.
Authoritative parents combine their high expectations with emotional warmth and open communication. They are responsive to their children’s needs and feelings. Children develop better emotional regulation.
In contrast, the authoritarian style, although having high standards, tends to be more rigid and controlling without much emotional engagement. Children of authoritarian parents often have low self-esteem and more externalizing behaviors.12
Final thoughts on authoritative parenting
Being an authoritative parent is not about being perfect. There is no perfect parent. What matters is that you try your best to balance warmth with firmness and respond to your child’s changing needs. Even if you make some mistakes, keep working to build trust and autonomy.
When you start adopting this democratic parenting style, it can feel overwhelming, and you may sometimes doubt your abilities. Some days will go smoothly; some will be chaotic. Strive for progress over perfection. Reflect on what went well or could improve, then give yourself credit for showing up.
Authoritative parenting is a journey of growth for parents, too. Stay committed to compassion and patience with yourself and your kids.
Focus on repairing moments of disconnect through open communication. Keep perspective by remembering the deep love for your child.
With commitment and compassion for all, the authoritative parenting path will lead to positive outcomes for all.
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- 2.Baumrind D. Authoritative parenting revisited: History and current status. Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development.:11-34. doi:10.1037/13948-002
- 3.Pinquart M, Gerke DC. Associations of Parenting Styles with Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis. J Child Fam Stud. Published online April 20, 2019:2017-2035. doi:10.1007/s10826-019-01417-5
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- 8.Lopez NV, Schembre S, Belcher BR, et al. Parenting styles, food-related parenting practices, and children’s healthy eating: A mediation analysis to examine relationships between parenting and child diet. Appetite. Published online September 2018:205-213. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2018.06.021
- 9.Crnic K, Ross E. Parenting Stress and Parental Efficacy. Parental Stress and Early Child Development. Published online 2017:263-284. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-55376-4_11
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