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Psychology

Differential Susceptibility Hypothesis and Effects

Recent studies have suggested that the Differential Susceptibility Hypothesis (DSH) is more consistent with current evidence than the Diathesis-Stress Model, which has dominated the views on the causes of psychological disorders for over 30 years. What is Differential Susceptibility Differential susceptibility to environmental influences summarizes the observations that some individuals are disproportionately more susceptible to …

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Fear Conditioning

Learning the associations between aversive events and the environmental stimuli that predict such events is an essential survival skill in animals. Fear conditioning paradigm is an epitome of this form of associative learning. Classical Conditioning Pavlovian conditioning, also known as classical conditioning, is learning through the association of a neutral stimulus with a biologically potent …

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Strange Situation – How to Identify A Child’s Attachment Style

What is Strange Situation The Strange Situation is a laboratory-based procedure devised by psychologist Mary Ainsworth in the 1960s to observe an infant’s response to two brief separations from, and reunions with, the parent. The pattern of behaviors can identify the child’s early attachment styles depicted in the Attachment Theory, a developmental psychology theory developed …

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Disorganized Attachment: How It Forms & How To Heal

Babies are born wired to seek connection and proximity to their primary caregivers for survival. This deeply rooted connection-seeking behavior allows a child to develop an attachment to their primary caregiver. Depending on the type of parenting, a child can form an organized attachment or disorganized attachment to their caregiver. Table of Contents Organized Attachment …

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Resilience Theory – Psychology

Natural disasters, crime, war, accident, and abuse are unfortunate but sometimes unavoidable parts of life. Psychologists, psychiatrists and pediatricians have long been fascinated by the striking fact that when facing adversity, some children come out relatively unscathed while others crumble. In this article, we will examine what resilience theory is and how it can help …

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Bowlby & Ainsworth Attachment Theory – Psychology

Attachment theory is a groundbreaking observation that explains the functions and importance of the child-parent bond. In this article, we’ll look at the origins of this theory, the four attachment patterns and the four phases a child goes through to establish an attachment. Table of Contents What is Attachment Bowlby’s Attachment Theory Ainsworth Attachment Theory …

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Unconditioned Stimulus in Classical Conditioning – Psychology

In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS) is any stimulus that can naturally and automatically trigger a response without prior learning or practice. It is also called the primary reinforcer. The involuntary response is a reflex triggered whenever the UCS is present. Examples of an Unconditioned Stimulus Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, first discovered …

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Spontaneous Recovery in Psychology

Table of Contents What is Spontaneous Recovery Examples In Classical Conditioning Examples In Operant Conditioning How it Works What is Spontaneous Recovery When a behavior or response becomes conditioned through conditioning, it can be extinct by removing the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery refers to the sudden reappearance of a previously extinct conditioned response. Spontaneous recovery …

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Positive Punishment in Operant Conditioning

Positive punishment is often used in life when we want to suppress unwanted behavior. Let’s examine what this operant conditioning can do. Table of Contents What is Positive Punishment Examples Does It Work Positive Punishment in Parenting Positive Punishment in the Classroom What is Positive Punishment Positive punishment is a type of operant conditioning, a …

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