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Mother kisses a baby - attachment theory

Bowlby & Ainsworth Attachment Theory

Attachment theory is a groundbreaking observation that explains the functions and importance of the child-parent bond. In this article, we’ll look at the origins of this theory, the four attachment patterns and the four phases a child goes through to establish an attachment. Table of Contents What is Attachment Bowlby’s Attachment Theory Ainsworth Attachment Theory …

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cute small jack russell dog at home waiting to eat his food in a bowl. Pets indoors

Unconditioned Stimulus in Classical Conditioning

In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS) is any stimulus that can naturally and automatically trigger a response without prior learning or practice. It is also called the primary reinforcer. The involuntary response is a reflex triggered whenever the UCS is present. Examples of an Unconditioned Stimulus Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, first discovered …

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Dog looks up at bowl filled with food - spontaneous recovery

Spontaneous Recovery in Psychology

Table of Contents What is Spontaneous Recovery Examples In Classical Conditioning Examples In Operant Conditioning How it Works What is Spontaneous Recovery When a behavior or response becomes conditioned through conditioning, it can be extinct by removing the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery refers to the sudden reappearance of a previously extinct conditioned response. Spontaneous recovery …

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Beagle dog gives a paw to trainer - operant conditioning

Operant Conditioning – Psychology

Operant conditioning, also known as instrumental conditioning, is a learning process in which behavior is modified using rewards or punishments. By repeatedly pairing the desired behavior with a consequence, an association is formed to create new learning. E.g. a dog trainer gives a dog a treat every time the dog raises its left paw. The dog …

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Woman trains beagle using treat in the park - extinction psychology

What is Extinction in Psychology

When it comes to extinction, most people connect it with the complete disappearance of dinosaurs or endangered species such as the wild water buffalos. In psychology, extinction carries a similar meaning to learned behavior. What is Extinction (Psychology) Extinction in psychology refers to the fading and disappearance of behavior that was previously learned by association …

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Boy cries, parent takes ipad away - negative punishment

What is Negative Punishment

In this article, we will review negative punishment, definition, examples, and its drawbacks. American psychologist B.F. Skinner developed the theory of operant conditioning, which stated that a person or animal’s behavior could be increased or decreased by adding or removing appropriate stimuli following that behavior.  Two types of operant conditioning can reduce target behavior – …

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