What is play
Play is often regarded as an activity done for its own sake because the process is enjoyable and generates positive emotions in participants. In most cases, it is a voluntary activity that is fun, spontaneous, and self-initiated1.
As stated in Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN, 1989), playing is a fundamental need and right of all children2.
Play is an essential part of a child’s development and education experience3. The benefits can be immediate and long-term4.
Children spend between 3% and 20% of their time and energy playing. Younger children play longer and more vigorously after being deprived of play opportunities, such as being kept in classrooms5.
Play is almost universal among children, except those who are malnourished, deprived, or who have severe disabilities.
10 Types of play
There are many ways to categorize various types of play.
For instance, sociologist Mildred Parten classified different stages of play based on the level of social participation and social development. Psychologist Jean Piaget identified different categories of play by the conceptual content a child can learn from them.
Let’s examine the common types of play that child experts believe are essential to healthy children’s development.
Physical play for physical and cognitive development
Physical play, also known as locomotor play or exercise play, is a physical activity that uses and develops a child’s gross motor skills and fine motor skills. Tag, hide-and-seek, slides, ball games, and monkey bars are a few examples.
Children develop muscle growth, physical skills, endurance, and coordination through this type of play.
The physical form of play that involves a lot of movements is especially important to preschoolers and school-age children. Students nowadays spend long hours in the classroom6. Exercise can help spread out the cognitive learning that is too demanding at this age to reduce stress and improve cognitive skills. It also enhances moods, focus, and behavior in classroom6.
Therefore, physical play contributes to the development of children not only on a motor level but also on a cognitive level7.
Social play for social competence development
Social play involves playful interactions with others. For infants and toddlers, this means interacting with their parents in a fun family activity. Older children engage in social play with their peers.
Children develop social skills through social play. Although the word “social” implies positive and active interaction, social plays don’t always appear so as defined by adults. This is because “social” can take different forms at different baby milestones. Age greatly influences the type of social participation a child will have.
Here are three characteristic social plays found in young children8.
Parallel play is often observed in toddlers younger than two. It involves babies playing side by side without directly interacting. Their level of social interaction is playing beside each other. There are no direct social interactions, but they are social in nature by engaging in similar activities or playing with similar toys beside each other.
Researchers have found a correlation between parallel play and intelligence in young children (two-year-olds), but the reasons and mechanisms are unknown.
Associative play is a form of group play in which group members are involved with similar activities in a loosely organized way. It is more common in older children starting at age three. Since children at this age still lack the ability to express themselves verbally, it is not yet a fully organized group play.
A child learns social interaction skills while playing with other children. They may start a conversation about something they do in common and enjoy the association.
Cooperative play is team-based play with members sharing a common goal, such as building a material product together, winning a competition, or playing a board game. There is active interaction and a distinct sense of belonging or not belonging to the group.
Children at this stage start developing and refining complex social skills such as communication, conflict resolution, and problem-solving skills9.
Games with rules can help children develop attention and organization skills, such as following rules, reasoning, suppressing impulses, making decisions, and self-regulating emotions10.
Non-social play for self-regulation
Nonsocial play is defined as a behavior in which a child does not interact with others or occupy their time with any activity in the presence of other potential play partners.
Social play provides children an important and unique learning environment through peer interaction. At first glance, nonsocial play may concern some parents. However, not all types of nonsocial play are cause for concern, and nonsocial play is normal in earlier stages of child development.
There are two broad types of nonsocial play – solitary play and reticent behavior11.
Each type can further be divided into two subtypes.
Solitary play can be classified as constructive or nonconstructive. Reticent behavior can be categorized as onlooking play or unoccupied play.
The four classes of nonsocial play are:
Solitary constructive play
Solitary constructive play primarily focuses on discovery and exploration. It involves moving things for the purposes of creating something or exploring. Examples include drawing, building a sandcastle, creating artwork, solving a puzzle, and stacking up building blocks.
Solitary non-constructive play
Non-constructive solitary play involves repeated or random body movements and can be done together with objects, such as bouncing a ball off the wall.
Observing others’ play activities without participating is called on-looking play. The child is a spectator. Although the child may show curiosity, such behavior is passive and lacks interaction with the physical and social environment.
During unoccupied “play,” a child does nothing and does not observe other children.
Nonsocial play varies in amount from child to child. Some children regularly play alone, while others play in groups where friendships and social networks are formed
It is sometimes assumed that playing alone can indicate social problems and difficulties with adjustment.
Researchers suggest, however, that autonomous functioning, time for self-reflection, a preference for aloneness, and independent learning contribute to why some kids engage in nonsocial behaviors and should not be viewed as a cause for concern.
It is not the quantity of young children’s social interaction that caregivers should be concerned with, but the quality of their social interactions when they do take place. Kids who take an interest in their surroundings and want to explore and learn about them are better adjusted than those who spend too much or too little time alone11.
Other healthy reasons children engage in nonsocial play include young age (baby or toddler), peace of mind, self-regulation, and being in control of their environment.
In contrast, children with little social interaction may be at risk for poor developmental outcomes. If you believe your child is at risk, consult your pediatrician for a full evaluation.
Language play for language development
Language play refers to children manipulating the forms or functions of language as a way of amusing themselves and/or others.
Language play is different at different ages. Around age 1, children begin to play phonetically alone12. Toddlers may talk to themselves before sleeping or waking up by the age of two13.
By the age of 3 and 4, children are telling jokes in a humorous way.
Language play promotes the development of various language skills, including sounds, vocabulary, meaning, grammar, and appropriate use in interactive situations.
Pretend play for emotional development
Pretend play involves pretending that an object or action is different from what it is in the real world. Pretend play is also known by a variety of names, including role play, dramatic play, imaginative play, creative play, and fantasy play
Children play new roles and reflect on their experience of reality in a safe environment. They can experiment with languages and learn about emotions in a fantasy situation or in their imagination. In addition to thinking and creating beyond their physical world, make-believe role-playing offers a chance for children to assume adult roles and learn abstract thinking.
When done in a group setting, children need to learn teamwork and work together. They learn important skills, including creativity, cooperation, taking turns, negotiation skills (who gets what role), emotional skills (acting out an emotion without losing control), and communication skills (speaking to another child during fantasy play)14.
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