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21 Maladaptive Coping Examples and How To Recover

What Is Maladaptive Coping

Maladaptive coping refers to coping strategies or behaviors that are ineffective, harmful, or counterproductive in dealing with stress, adversity, or difficult situations. 

In contrast to adaptive coping strategies that help individuals effectively manage stress and promote well-being, maladaptive coping strategies can exacerbate stress and emotional distress, leading to negative outcomes such as mental health disorders, substance abuse, and physical health problems.

maladaptive coping boys stressed about studying

Adaptive vs. maladaptive coping

Adaptive coping refers to effective strategies that individuals use to manage and navigate challenging situations. These strategies help individuals reduce emotional distress, solve problems, and maintain their focus on achieving their goals. In contrast, maladaptive coping involves ineffective or harmful strategies that seem to resolve a problem in the short term but actually worsen the situation.

Examples

Here are some examples of maladaptive behavior in children​1–4​.

  1. Substance abuse
  2. Aggression
  3. Bottling up emotions
  4. Bullying
  5. Defying authority
  6. Disruptive behavior
  7. Stealing
  8. Risky sexual behavior
  9. Smoking
  10. Alcohol abuse
  11. Binge-eating
  12. Bulimic behavior
  13. Self-injurious behavior
  14. Maladaptive Daydreaming
  15. Disassociating
  16. Avoidance behavior
  17. Ruminating
  18. Hyper-vigilance
  19. Risky or reckless behavior
  20. Delinquency
  21. Obsessive behavior, such as compulsive hand-washing

Causes

Maladaptive coping mechanisms are ineffective ways of dealing with daily stress, and they often stem from adverse experiences in a child’s early years. 

Infants are born with primitive self-regulation abilities, such as thumb-sucking or looking away. They must develop more advanced coping mechanisms to deal with their distress as they grow.

Children develop strong coping skills when mild and moderate stress is present, positive coping models are provided, and scaffolding is age-appropriate. Each of these ingredients is crucial to developing effective coping strategies​5​.

The absence of these ingredients puts children at risk for a maladptive response development.

As an example, individuals experiencing ongoing stress, such as maltreatment, and not having positive role models to emulate often resort to primitive coping techniques that are maladaptive.

Unfortunately, repeated use of these maladaptive strategies may lead to long-term problems with mental and physical health. Medicating oneself with substance is a maladaptive example.

Effects

Despite being primitive and ineffective in the long run, a maladaptive coping mechanism develops because it is adaptive in providing temporary relief from extreme stress.

When an individual leaves the harsh environment but cannot adopt new adaptive behaviors, it becomes maladaptive.

Maladaptive coping can have adverse effects on a person’s daily life.

Mental Health

Maladaptive practices are linked to various mental health issues.

For instance, children develop negative coping and thinking patterns that can lead to mental disorders such as depression and social anxiety disorders.

Maladaptive behavior such as binge eating and purging can result in eating disorders in some individuals.

Those who suffer adverse childhood experiences are also more prone to developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)​6​.

Physical Health

Early adverse environments can negatively impact a person’s physical health.

An early stressful environment can affect physical health by dysregulating the body’s stress response system. 

As a fight-flight-freeze reaction, the stress response system is activated during times of danger. But chronic activation due to prolonged uncontrollable stress damages one’s immune system and ability to regulate stress, leading to health conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insomnia​7,8​.

One’s physical health can also be directly affected by maladaptive behaviors like smoking, drug abuse, alcohol use, and self-harm.

A maladaptive stress response, such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa, can damage their physical health.

Daily Functioning

Many of the highly maladaptive coping techniques are debilitating. However, less serious maladaptive behavior can cause harm in one’s everyday life.

Aggression can lead to anti-social behavior. Addiction can lead to problems with employment, finances, and relationships, resulting in legal issues such as drug-related offenses.

Disassociation, which is losing touch with reality, can hinder one’s ability to perform daily tasks, maintain relationships, and hold down a job.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), resulting from maladaptive coping, is another disorder that can cripple one’s daily functioning​9​.

Also See: Coping Skills for Teens

How To Treat

Maladaptive behavior can have serious negative consequences for individuals and those around them. If left unaddressed, it can lead to a range of mental and physical health problems, as well as social and legal issues.

The good news is even after being developed in early childhood and strengthened over time, coping mechanisms can still be changed because the brain is malleable.

Developing new ways to cope with feelings of anxiety or overwhelming stress under difficult circumstances can prevent further damage to the body and mind​10​.

Changing maladaptive coping skills requires managing stress and using adaptive coping mechanisms in challenging circumstances. Here are some suggestions for achieving them​11​.

Stress reduction

  • Use deep breathing techniques
  • Mindfulness practices such as meditation or yoga can improve emotional awareness to catch stress sensations early
  • Self-care
  • A healthy lifestyle, including enough sleep and a balanced diet

Adaptive Coping Strategies

Two types of coping strategies are based on whether one moves toward or away from the anxiety-producing situation.

Avoidance-oriented coping refers to strategies that avoid or withdraw from the problem. Avoidant coping tends to provide short-term relief.

Approach-oriented coping refers to strategies that seek information and use direct efforts to maintain control​12​.

Here are some accommodative coping skills that are approach-oriented to deal with stressful events.

Get Help

Mental health professionals can provide individuals with various tools and strategies for managing stress and difficult emotions. 

They provide a safe and non-judgmental space where you can process your difficult feelings and thoughts. They also help you identify faulty beliefs and negative patterns to develop healthy coping behaviors. Throughout the process, they provide support and guidance to stay motivated and on track.

References

  1. 1.
    Roemmele M, Messman-Moore TL. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. Published online May 2011:264-283. doi:10.1080/10538712.2011.575445
  2. 2.
    Thompson RJ, Mata J, Jaeggi SM, Buschkuehl M, Jonides J, Gotlib IH. Maladaptive coping, adaptive coping, and depressive symptoms: Variations across age and depressive state. Behaviour Research and Therapy. Published online June 2010:459-466. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2010.01.007
  3. 3.
    Deb S. Self-injurious behaviour as part of genetic syndromes. Br J Psychiatry. Published online May 1998:385-388. doi:10.1192/bjp.172.5.385
  4. 4.
    Shorey RC, Elmquist J, Anderson S, Stuart GL. The Relationship Between Early Maladaptive Schemas, Depression, and Generalized Anxiety among Adults Seeking Residential Treatment for Substance Use Disorders. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. Published online May 27, 2015:230-238. doi:10.1080/02791072.2015.1050133
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    Abaied JL, Rudolph KD. Mothers as a Resource in Times of Stress: Interactive Contributions of Socialization of Coping and Stress to Youth Psychopathology. J Abnorm Child Psychol. Published online November 12, 2009:273-289. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9364-7
  6. 6.
    Choi KW, Sikkema KJ, Velloza J, et al. Maladaptive coping mediates the influence of childhood trauma on depression and PTSD among pregnant women in South Africa. Arch Womens Ment Health. Published online January 13, 2015:731-738. doi:10.1007/s00737-015-0501-8
  7. 7.
    Wadsworth ME. Development of Maladaptive Coping: A Functional Adaptation to Chronic, Uncontrollable Stress. Child Dev Perspect. Published online April 1, 2015:96-100. doi:10.1111/cdep.12112
  8. 8.
    Fernández-Mendoza J, Vela-Bueno A, Vgontzas AN, et al. Cognitive-Emotional Hyperarousal as a Premorbid Characteristic of Individuals Vulnerable to Insomnia. Psychosomatic Medicine. Published online May 2010:397-403. doi:10.1097/psy.0b013e3181d75319
  9. 9.
    Haaland AT, Vogel PA, Launes G, et al. The role of early maladaptive schemas in predicting exposure and response prevention outcome for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy. Published online November 2011:781-788. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2011.08.007
  10. 10.
    McEwen BS. The Brain on Stress. Perspect Psychol Sci. Published online November 2013:673-675. doi:10.1177/1745691613506907
  11. 11.
    Davidson RJ, McEwen BS. Social influences on neuroplasticity: stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nat Neurosci. Published online April 15, 2012:689-695. doi:10.1038/nn.3093
  12. 12.
    Herman-Stabl MA, Stemmler M, Petersen AC. Approach and avoidant coping: Implications for adolescent mental health. J Youth Adolescence. Published online December 1995:649-665. doi:10.1007/bf01536949

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