What Is A Parenting Style?
The 4 parenting styles commonly used in psychology today are authoritative parenting style, authoritarian parenting style, permissive parenting style, and neglectful parenting style. They are based on the work of psychologist Diana Baumrind, a developmental psychologist at the University of California at Berkeley, in the 1960s. Maccoby and Martin also contributed by refining the model in the 1980s.
Diana Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Theory
Baumrind noticed that preschoolers exhibited distinctly different types of behavior. Each type of behavior was highly correlated to a specific kind of parenting.
Baumrind’s theory is that there is a close relationship between the type of parenting style and children’s behavior. Different styles of parenting can lead to different child development and child outcomes.
Based on extensive observation, interviews, and analyses, Baumrind initially identified these three parenting styles: authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting1.
Although Diana Baumrind is known for her work on categorizing parenting styles, Maccoby and Martin (1983) were the ones who expanded this 3-parenting-styles model using a two-dimensional framework2.
They expanded Baumrind’s permissive parenting style into two different types: permissive style (also known as indulgent parenting style) and neglectful parenting (also known as uninvolved parenting style).
These four parenting styles are sometimes called the Diana Baumrind parenting styles or Maccoby and Martin parenting styles.
The four types of parenting styles are:
- Authoritarian (or Disciplinarian)
- Permissive (or Indulgent)
- Neglectful (or Uninvolved)
Statistics on Parenting Styles
In the US, roughly 46% of parents use authoritative parenting style, 26% authoritarian parenting style, 18% permissive parenting style, and 10% neglectful parenting style3.
The distribution is relatively stable within the population, except that European-American parents are about 2% more likely to have an authoritative style, while Asian-American parents are 2% more likely to have an authoritarian style.
Parenting Styles Chart Infographic
Parenting Styles Definition and Their Effects on Children’s Behavior
Parenting styles are categorized based on two dimensions of parenting behavior and styles:
Demandingness refers to the extent to which parents control their child’s behavior or demand their maturity.
Responsiveness refers to the degree to which parents are accepting and sensitive to their children’s emotional and developmental needs.
Here are the impacts of parenting styles on child development.
1. Authoritative Parenting
High demandingness. High responsivenss.
Authoritative parents have high expectations for achievement and maturity, but they are also warm and responsive4.
These parents set rules and enforce boundaries by having open discussions, providing guidance, and using reasoning.
These parents provide their kids with reasoning and explanation for their actions. Explanations allow children to have a sense of awareness and teach kids about values, morals, and goals.
Their disciplinary methods are confrontative5, i.e. reasoned, negotiable, outcome-oriented, and concerned with regulating behaviors.
Authoritative parents are affectionate and supportive. They respect their children’s autonomy, provide them with a lot of freedom and encourage independence.
They also allow bidirectional communication. This style of parenting is also known as the democratic parenting style6.
Children of authoritative parents are cherished.
Based on Baumrind’s research on parenting styles, children of authoritative parents tend to7:
- Appear happy and content.
- Are more independent
- Are more active8.
- Achieve higher academic performance8–10.
- Develop good self-esteem11.
- Interact with peers using competent social skills12.
- Have better mental health — less depression, anxiety, suicide attempts, delinquency, alcohol and drug use13–15.
- Exhibit less violent tendencies16.
- Are securely attached.
2. Authoritarian Parenting
High demandingness. Low reponsiveness.
High levels of parental control and low levels of parental responsiveness are the two characteristics of the authoritarian style.
While both parental styles demand high standards, authoritarian parents demand blind obedience using reasons such as “because I said so“. They only allow one-way communication through strict rules and orders. Any attempts to reason with them are seen as backtalk.
These parents use stern discipline and often employ harsh punishment, such as corporal punishment, as a way to obtain behavioral control. Their disciplinary methods are coercive5, i.e. arbitrary, peremptory, domineering, and concerned with marking status distinctions.
Authoritarian parents are unresponsive to their child’s needs and are generally not nurturing. They usually justify using mean treatment to toughen up their kids.
Children whose parents have an authoritarian parenting style tend to:
- Have an unhappy disposition.
- Be less independent.
- Appear insecure.
- Possess low self-esteem.
- Exhibit more behavioral problems or conduct issues17.
- More temper tantrums.
- Perform worse academically.
- Have poorer social competence.
- Be more prone to internalizing behavior and mental issues18.
- Be more likely to have drug use problems19.
- Have worse coping skills20.
3. Permissive Parenting (Indulgent)
Low demandingness. High responsiveness
Permissive parents set very few rules and boundaries and they are reluctant to enforce rules.
These indulgent parents are warm and indulgent but they do not like to say no or disappoint their children.
Children of permissive parents tend to have the worst outcomes:
- Cannot follow rules.
- Have worse self-control.
- Possess egocentric tendencies.
- Encounter more problems in relationships and social interactions.
4. Neglectful Parenting (Uninvolved)
Low demandingness. Low responsiveness.
Neglectful parents do not set firm boundaries or high standards.
They are indifferent to their children’s needs and uninvolved in their lives.
These uninvolved parents may have mental issues themselves such as depression, physical abuse, or child neglect when they were kids.
Children of neglectful parents:
- Are more impulsive.
- Cannot self-regulate emotion.
- Encounter more delinquent behavior and addictions problems.
- Have more mental issues — e.g. suicidal behavior in adolescents.
Which Parenting Style Is The Most Effective?
From decades of studies, research shows that authoritative parenting is consistently linked to the best outcomes in kids.
The authoritative parenting style is considered the best parenting style by psychologists and psychiatrists.
This classification of child rearing styles has been studied for over 25 years in different countries.
Results are generally found to be as expected for each parenting style.
However, inconsistencies and exceptions in some areas remain.
Here are some important factors that may also play a part in determining how a child turns out.
Cultural and Ethnics Differences
Some studies found that the authoritative style isn’t always linked to the best school achievement across families from diverse ethnic (e.g. Asian, Black, Hispanic) and socioeconomic backgrounds (e.g. income level, parental education, number of active parents)21.
For example, in one study, researchers found that African-American students with authoritative parents but without peer support did not perform the best academically.
As for Asian-American students, in some studies, they performed the best in school when they had authoritarian parents and peer support22.
In Spain, a study showed that both indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with positive outcomes23.
Children’s own behavior can affect the parent’s choice and the outcomes, too.
For example, kids with a more sensitive temperament may be perceived as difficult causing the parents to change their parenting style towards more authoritarian.
In a study, it was also found that some aspect of child behavior such as sociable and aggressive behaviors are better correlated to the child’s temperament than to the parenting style of their parents.
It seems like parenting style is not the only determining factor in the child’s outcomes.
Differences in social context and in child temperaments can make a difference, too.
But it is worth noting that, despite being widely publicized, not all of these study results have been successfully reproduced by other researchers.
In addition, these results are also not consistent across other types of outcomes, such as behavior or mental health.
For example, while some studies found the use of authoritarian parenting in the Chinese American population was associated with the best academic outcomes24, others found the authoritative parenting to be the best in predicting school performance25.
To this date, no study has conclusively disproved the benefits of authoritative parenting, while many others have consistently shown its advantages.
Authoritative parenting is still the most encouraged parenting style in modern America as recommended by experts.
Parenting Styles vs Parenting Practices
Another component that can impact the outcome is the distinction between parenting style and parenting practice.
Parenting style is the emotional climate and control in which parents raise their children.
Parenting practices are specific actions that parents employ in their parenting.
Even for parents with the same parenting style, they may choose to different ways or different approaches to implementing specific parenting practices and that will affect the degree of outcomes.
Limitations And Criticisms Of Parenting Studies
When interpreting research results, it is important to note that most of these parenting studies only find links between parenting styles and outcomes.
That is, the results are only correlation and not causation.
For example, parents who are warm and responsive tend to have children who exhibit less behavior problems. One is tempted to say that therefore warm and responsive parents result in better behaving kids.
But you can easily turn that around and say that kids who behave cause their parents to be more warm and responsive.
Different children have different temperaments and they can, in turn, affect parents’ behavior.
These parenting research does not tell us which one is the correct cause-and-effect relationship.
So why do most psychologists and experts still recommend authoritative parenting style?
One reason is that there are overwhelming volumes of studies showing these connections consistently.
Another reason is that there is no research that shows authoritative parenting style causes harm to children.
As a parent, if I have to choose one parenting style, without any research data, I would consider my parenting goals and the type of parent I want to be.
My ultimate parenting goal is to raise a healthy, happy, kind, and responsible person who will love me and our family when she grows up. AND I also want to enjoy the experience of parenting.
It is hard to imagine being cold and strict (authoritarian), cold and indifferent (neglectful), or warm and indulgent (permissive) will achieve all of my goals.
The authoritative parenting style simply makes sense to me.
Which parenting style is most encouraged in modern America?
Of the four Baumrind parenting styles, the authoritative parenting style is the one that is most encouraged in modern American society.
Also See: Montessori Parenting
Nature Vs Nurture
Nature vs nurture is one of the oldest debates in the history of psychology. Which one matters more?
A recent study by the Queensland Brain Institute and the VU University of Amsterdam has pretty much settled the Nature vs Nurture debate. 14.5 million pairs of twins from almost every twin study ever done in the past 50 years were collected and analyzed26.
Researchers have found that a person’s behavior and character traits are influenced roughly the same by genetics (nature) and by environment (nurture).
Different parenting styles
A number of new forms of parenting have surfaced in recent years, and those ideas describe today’s parenting styles perfectly. These are a few of the most popular parenting styles in the United States today.
Attachment parenting is a style of parenting aimed at meeting the emotional needs of infants responsively through close physical contact and emotional attunement.
Parents create a positive, warm and safe environment where their children can develop trust and closeness. They also give their child enough time to feel comfortable and familiar with the world.
In 1993, William Sears’ book about attachment parenting popularized this parenting style. Parenting practices he recommends are based upon the Attachment Theory developed by psychiatrist John Bowlby.
In Baumrind’s parenting style paradigm, attachment parenting emphasizes responsiveness. Since it focuses on a baby’s early years, there are no references to parents’ demands.
Children with responsive parents tend to have27
- More cognitive competence
- Better Communication
- Healthier social-emotional development
Helicopter parenting is a term used to describe the over-protective attitude and constant involvement of parents with their children.
A helicopter parent hovers over their child, monitors, and controls every aspect of their children’s lives, and steps in whenever a problem arises. They tend to control the environment and activities that the child participates in, forcing them to conform to the parent’s expectations, while at the same time depriving them of the chance to learn things on their own. This parenting style often interferes with a child’s development and leads to negative results.
This parenting style does not fit neatly under any of Baumrind’s categories. Helicopter parents are typically insensitive to the child’s emotional needs. When the child fails to live up to their high expectations, these parents jump in to help. Therefore, this parenting style is close to authoritarian.
Children raised by helicopter parents tend to have
- Lower self-esteem28
- Fear of failure
- More likely to develop disorder such as anxiety, depression and drug abuse29
- Poor stress coping skills30
- Less independent
Tiger parenting is a strict parenting style. It is alleged to be a common parenting style among Chinese American families, but research has proven otherwise31.
It is characterized by a very strict and harsh set of rules and regulations. Tiger parents create a very rigid environment where the children have very little freedom or choices. Emotional abuse such as shaming and insulting is often used to force children to comply.
A tiger parenting style exemplifies the authoritarian parenting style.
Children of tiger parenting are more likely to have:
- Lower academic performance
- Less sense of family obligation
- More depressive symptoms
Free-range parenting is the practice of allowing children to be more independent than traditional parenting would allow. It is the antithesis of helicopter parenting.
Free-range parents allow children to make decisions and develop a strong sense of responsibility for their own lives. In a free-range household, there is less control, less supervision, and more freedom. Children can explore their environment and develop into independent adults. They make choices and learn from the consequences of their choices.
This parenting style emphasizes the child’s right to make decisions and has been described as a natural parenting style that emphasizes self-direction and respect for the child’s needs.
These parents are sometimes accused of neglect in the United States, although the definition of child neglect is sufficiently vague.
According to Baumrind’s parenting classification, neglectful parents are cold and unresponsive and have no demands or expectations from their children. Nonetheless, free-range parents can indeed be warm and responsive to their children, but simply believe that children should be given more freedom and autonomy32.
Parenting Style Quiz
To find out your parenting style, try this test at PsychCentral.
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