Did you know that parents could train their children to act defiant? “Who in their right minds would do that?” you may wonder. Well, many of us actually do. Find out how a lot of parents unknowingly train their children in rebellion using negative reinforcement.
Table of Contents
- What Is Negative Reinforcement
- “Negative” in Negative Reinforcement
- Examples of Negative Reinforcement
- Misconception About Negative Reinforcement
Behavioral psychologist, B.F. Skinner, believed that one’s behavior could be increased or decreased in frequency using a stimulus through a process called operant conditioning1.
In operant learning, the specific behaviors are controlled by its consequences2.
There are two types of operant conditioning – reinforcement and punishment. The difference between reinforcement and punishment is that the reinforcement encourages a behavior to repeat, while punishment discourages it.
There are also two forms of reinforcement – positive / negative. Both positive and negative reinforcement can increase a target behavior.
Positive and negative describe how the stimulus is used to enhance the specific behavior. When a reinforcing stimulus is added to reinforce a certain behavior, positive reinforcement results. When an unpleasant stimulus is subtracted to reinforce the behavior, negative reinforcement results.
Therefore, the word, positive or negative, does not represent the nature or quality of the reinforcement. Instead, they simply describe whether a stimulus is added (positive) or subtracted (negative) to reinforce the particular behavior.
What Is Negative Reinforcement
Negative reinforcement is encouraging a desired behavior to repeat in the future by removing or avoiding an aversive stimulus.
People sometimes associate positive reinforcement meaning with rewards and naturally assume negative reinforcement is the opposite of awards, which is punishment. But it is not. Negative reinforcement does not mean it is bad or punishing in nature. Negative reinforcement is not the same as positive punishment or negative punishment.
Reinforcement encourages certain behaviors to repeat and raises the future frequency of an action. On the other hand, positive / negative punishment discourage behaviors.
“Negative” in Negative Reinforcement
To remember the meaning of negative in negative reinforcement is to think of it as taking away something or something being subtracted to provide a favorable outcome as the consequence.
In negative reinforcement, that favorable outcome is the removal of something already present or avoidance of an inevitable aversive event. The person wants to repeat the target action because they want the consequence to repeat.
Removal and reduction of ongoing stimulation typically produce behavior that is called escape. Postponement and prevention of aversive stimulus produce behavior that is called avoidance3.
Examples of Negative Reinforcement
Taking a shower or a bath is a good example of how negative reinforcement works. After being out and about all day, you come home in a sweaty shirt. You then take a shower to get rid of the bad smell and the yucky sweat on your bodies.
You like the feeling of freshness and cleanliness after the shower, and therefore, you will likely repeat this action after you come home next time.
Here, the bad smell and yucky feeling are the aversive stimuli. The behavior results in the removal of the aversive stimuli.
Example In Everyday Life: Putting on a coat in cold weather
Being able to stay healthy is a very practical motivator. So anytime you can do something to have sickness already present removed (taking something away) or prevented, you will likely repeat it in the future.
Here’s one example. When it is cold outside, wearing a coat can help you prevent the negative outcome of getting sick from occurring.
- Context: A chilly day at low temperature
- Behavior: Wearing a coat when you go outside
- Stimulus: Getting a cold
- Negative Reinforcement: Wearing a coat on a chilly day can prevent you from catching a cold. Your action to avoid sickness is then reinforced to avoid negative consequences.
Example For Child: Picking up toys
Here’s another example of negative reinforcement. Little kids often spread their toys such as stuffed animals around the room when they play and then neglect to put them away. Some parents come up with “cleanup songs”, “cleanup rituals” or other creative ways to entice children to pick up toys after playing. This is a positive reinforcement tactic.
The behavior of putting toys away can actually be negatively reinforced. One negative consequence of leaving toys scattered around the house is that they will likely be lost or hard to find when the child wants to play with them again the next time.
By teaching the child this natural consequence, they will likely pick up toys more frequently in the future. The aversive stimulus of toy loss is then avoided.
- Context: Toys scattered around the house
- Behavior: Putting away toys after playing
- Stimulus: Favorite toy lost or misplaced
- Negative Reinforcement: If the child puts away their toys after playing with them, they won’t lose the toys or forget where they are. Avoiding the aversive outcome is the end result.
Example At Home: Taking a Shower
- Context: You come home smelly and covered by sweat
- Behavior: Taking a shower
- Stimulus: Bad smell and yucky feeling
- Negative Reinforcement: Taking a shower gets rid of the bad odor and sticky feeling. It allows you to escape from the aversive stimuli already present.
Notice that whether a certain stimulus is aversive is subjective. An aversive stimulus to one person may be a favorable one to another.
For instance, not everyone likes or cares for the fresh and clean feeling after a bath. Children behavior, for example, falls into this category. Kids don’t mind being smelly or yucky. (That is why it can be a chore for some of us parents to get our little ones to take a bath.)
Example In The Classroom: Studying hard to avoid failing
Reinforcement in the classroom is commonly used. There are many reasons students want to study hard for exams. Some students genuinely enjoy learning or like the subject. These students are intrinsically motivated to study hard.
But other students may do it because they want to avoid being reprimanded by their parents for getting a failing grade. This type of studying is negatively reinforced because studying hard allows the student to escape being scolded by their parents.
- Context: Taking an exam
- Behavior: Studying hard for the exam
- Stimulus: Scolded or reprimanded by their parents
- Negative Reinforcement: Studying hard to earn a good grade allows the student to avoid being punished when they bring home the report card.
Example In Daily Life: Using sunscreen before going out
Applying sunscreen is also a health-related action you want to reinforce. When the sun is scorching outside, you know from experience that if you go outside without sunscreen, you will get a sunburn. Getting frequent sunburn is not only painful, but it can also lead to skin cancer.
- Context: Going out in the sun
- Behavior: Putting on sunscreen
- Stimulus: Painful and potentially dangerous sunburn
- Negative Reinforcement: Applying sunscreen can help keep you from getting a sunburn. Therefore, you have avoided the aversive stimulus.
Misconception About Negative Reinforcement
As seen in the examples, negative reinforcement occurs a lot more than we know in our daily life although we don’t hear this term often.
A common misconception about the use of negative reinforcement is that it is less effective or desirable than positive reinforcement.
However, we’ve already seen that putting away toys so you won’t lose them, wearing a jacket to avoid getting a cold, and using sunscreen to prevent sunburn are all “good behavior” that can be effectively increased through negative reinforcement. Therefore, this type of reinforcement is not less desirable than positive reinforcement. (In fact, not all positive reinforcement are good either.)
Whether a specific negative reinforcement is good/effective or not depends on the particular situation and context. General statements such as “negative reinforcement is not as good as positive reinforcement on someone” is simply incorrect.
Addictive substance such as opiates can produce a physical dependence after only a small number of uses (or even after a single use in some cases).
The consequence of drug abuse is very significant, to the addict and to the community. It can affect health, economic, and functioning of the society deeply. Unfortunately, substance abuse is a behavior that is very hard to curb because it is persistently encouraged through negative reinforcement.
A falling level of drug in the addicted person’s body can create a severe withdrawal syndrome. Drugs such as benzodiazepines, a type of tranquilizers, can cause anxiety and seizures during drug withdrawal. Cocaine can cause depression and restlessness and alcohol can cause tremors and seizures that last for days.
These withdrawal symptoms can only be rapidly alleviated by taking the drug again. Drug use, an undesired behavior, is therefore reinforced negatively when the aversive symptoms are taken away by taking another dose of the drug4, causing relapses likely to occur.
Negative Reinforcement Trap In Parenting
Here is a less obvious but more pervasive example of how parents use negative reinforcement unintentionally.
Mom tells a toddler to go to bed, which the toddler hates. The toddler then protests, whines, and throws a tantrum. Mom gives in and allows a later bedtime to stop the tantrum. The child stops crying and whining.
In this case, going to bed is an aversive stimulus for the child. By throwing a tantrum, the aversive stimulus is avoided, reinforcing the tantrum-throwing behavior.
At the same time, a toddler’s whining and crying is an aversive stimulus for Mom. When Mom gives in, the aversive stimulus is taken away, reinforcing Mom’s giving-in behavior.
In other words, the child has learned that tantrum and defiance can remove a parent’s demands. The parent has learned that giving up can remove a child’s tantrum. Reinforcement has occurred for both of them without them knowing it. This is escape learning as they both learn to escape the unpleasant situation.
The interaction is called the Negative Reinforcement Trap5.
A Negative Reinforcement Trap is created when parents do not follow through on their commands or discipline, unintentionally reinforcing non-compliance in their children.
Both parent’s and children’s behavior are mutually shaped through these negative reinforcement conditioning processes6. The parent has been trained to give up when the child behaves aversively, and the child has been trained to act aversive every time the parent disciplines.
Inconsistent Parenting and Conduct Problems
The strength of the child’s non-compliant response is affected by the four different types of schedules of reinforcement, i.e., when and how often the parent gives in.
A parent’s giving in sometimes but not all the time actually strengthens the child’s aversive behaviors the most.
Inconsistent parenting amounts to a variable ratio reinforcement schedule, which is the same type of schedule that causes some people to become deeply addicted to gambling. When applied in parenting, inconsistency makes the child’s defiant behavior to become increasingly hard to change.
Back to the previous example. Over time, Mom becomes more and more frustrated. She gets tough by yelling, threatening, or acting physically aggressive.
One of three things can now happen:
1) The toddler stops whining and throwing tantrums out of fear, which negatively reinforces Mom’s harsh behavior,
2) The toddler escalates the protest, which frustrates Mom more and she gets even tougher in response, or
3) 1 or 2 above takes place intermittently depending on who “wins” on different occasions, and the inconsistency strengthens both participants’ aggressive behavior.
As the dynamic continues, the parent-child interactions become more difficult to manage, leading to a destructive coercive cycle7.
This is how some children develop conduct problems, such as Oppositional Defiant Disorder, according to Coercion Theory8.
To break or prevent a negative reinforcement coercive cycle, parents should use non-aggressive and non-punitive disciplinary methods, such as Positive Discipline, to deal with their children’s aversive behavior. It’s also a good idea to set boundaries and be consistent in enforcing rules. Check out these 10 parenting tips on how to be a good parent.
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- 2.Staddon JER, Cerutti DT. Operant Conditioning. Annu Rev Psychol. February 2003:115-144. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145124
- 3.Iwata BA. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IN APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS: AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. December 1987:361-378. doi:10.1901/jaba.1987.20-361
- 4.Baker TB, Piper ME, McCarthy DE, Majeskie MR, Fiore MC. Addiction Motivation Reformulated: An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement. Psychological Review. 2004:33-51. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.111.1.33
- 5.Wierson M, Forehand R. Parent Behavioral Training for Child Noncompliance: Rationale, Concepts, and Effectiveness. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. October 1994:146-150. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10770643
- 6.Lunkenheimer E, Lichtwarck-Aschoff A, Hollenstein T, Kemp CJ, Granic I. Breaking Down the Coercive Cycle: How Parent and Child Risk Factors Influence Real-Time Variability in Parental Responses to Child Misbehavior. Parenting. August 2016:237-256. doi:10.1080/15295192.2016.1184925
- 7.Patterson GR. The aggressive child: Victim and architect of a coercive system. Behavior modification and families. 1976;1:267-316.
- 8.Gardner FEM. Inconsistent parenting: Is there evidence for a link with children’s conduct problems? J Abnorm Child Psychol. April 1989:223-233. doi:10.1007/bf00913796